Omega 3 & 6 – Is there a friend and a foe ?

In 1982 Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelson and John R. Vane won the Nobel Prize in Physiology “for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”.

This formed the foundation for the science of the Omega 3/6 balance. A subject that has since become one of the most thoroughly studied subjects on nutrition and physiology.

Basically the omega 3/6 balance science says that Omega 3 produces anti inflammatory eicosanoids and Omega 6 produces pro inflammatory eicosanoids. If we have to many pro inflammatory eicosanoids, then we build chronic sub clinical inflammation which creates lifestyle diseases.

Just for the record, eicosanoids are hormone like substances that performs many vital metabolic processes at the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system. The main classes of eicosanoids are prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, and leukotriens.

So does that mean that omega 3 is the good boy in the class and Omega 6 is the cruel bully ?

NO! We would not be able to survive without any of them. I will in this article give you 6 examples of how Omega 3 and Omega 6 work closely hand in hand to keep us alive.

1). Omega 3 produce eicosanoids that promote blood fluidity, and Omega 6 produce eicosanoids that promote platelet aggretion and blood clotting.

This should be spot on – blood clotting can trigger a heart attack so Omega 6 is the bad guy, right ? No because if we didn’t have the blood clotting ability to close off the wound, then we would bleed to death from just a small cut. We need our blood to have a high fluidity but we also need it to be able to clot.

2). Omega 3 produce eicosanoids that cause vasodilation (expansion of blood vessels) and Omega 6 causes vasoconstriction (contraction of blood vessels).

If we have extreme vasoconstriction then our blood pressure goes up to the point where we could possibly die. On the other hand in the case of extreme vasodilation we would experience a drop in blood pressure, that would cause us to faint and could also be potentially lethal.

3). Omega 3 produce eicosanoids that cause immunosuppretion, where as Omega 6 produce eicosanoids that promotes immunity.

No, immunosuppretion does not cause Omega 3 to be todays bad boy. Because if our immune cells wasn’t kept in a strict leach then it would potentially cause the immune system to go rouge and cause auto immune diseases where the immune system attacks healthy cells in the body.

4). Omega 3 produce anti inflammatory eicosanoids, Omega 6 produce pro inflammatory eicosanoids.

The anti inflammatory eicosanoids help slow down the aging process and inflammatory degradation that is leading to a number of lifestyle diseases.

On the other hand – the pro inflammatory response is exactly what we need to fight invasion from foreign pathogens or damage to our cells – so even here, one would not work without the other.

5). Omega 3 produce pain inhibiting eicosanoids. One of many reasons why people with chronic pain often reports relief when taking fish oil in the right dosage.

Now none of us want to live in pain. So as I tell you that Omega 6 produce pain transmitting eicosanoids you’d probably say that you only want the Omega 3’s. Right ? Well wrong again, without the eicosanoids that comes from Omega 6 you would not be able to feel the pain that alert you when you place your hand on a hot stow or when you get an injury that demands immediate attention.

6). Omega 6 produce eicosanoids that promotes cell proliferation, the process that makes it possible for our cells to renew themselves. On the other hand if we did not have the cell proliferation inhibiting eicosanoids from Omega 3 then huge threats like tumors would be able to grow uncontrolled and rapidly.

So you see we need both Omega 3 and Omega 6’s. The logic question to ask now is, in that case – why does science keep telling us to eat more Omega 3 and not Omega 6 ?

The answer to this is simply that we generally get way to much Omega 6 from our modern diet. After Ancel Keys managed to get his falsified theory that fats are dangerous published, has the food industry replaced the saturated fats with vegetable oils, which means that today we find Omega 6’s in almost every processed food source we eat such as: cooking oils, margarine, salad dressings & mayonnaise, nuts & seeds, chips, all fried fast foods, cookies, candies, meat (because live stock today is rapidly fed on corn), poultry etc.

The problem has actually become so severe that more then 95% of the population is out of balance. Now given what we just learned about the functions of Omega 3’s and Omega 6’s, balance is extremely important – and should be as close to 1:1 as possible, so they can balance each other out, and let our bodies work as the perfect machine that it is.

Reality is extremely different though. On average the europeans have a balance of 15:1 and in the USA we see an average balance of 25:1.

This means that when we produce more inflammatory eicosanoids then anti inflammatory our bodies build up chronic inflammation which results in arthritis,atherosclerosis ( leading to heart attack) obesity and a number of other lifestyle related diseases.

It means that when we produce more pain transmitting eicosanoids we get prone to chronic pain.

At this point you might want to know if you need to take an Omega 3 supplement. Especially if you have a chronic condition that is bothering you. There’s really just one way to know – take a test.

There’s a few tests out there to choose from, and they vary in price. I offer a test as well, it’s not cheap but it’s one of the most comprehensive and in-depth tests on the market. the test can be done from the comfort of your own home, and takes about 20 days to get your results. What you get is a 14 page analysis on your entire fatty acid profile including dietary advice based on your test results.

Aditional information on the test can be found here.

Dust promotes growth of fat cells !

It’s no secret that the quality of nutrition we consume and the level of activity we perform play a crucial role in wether we are obese or not.

However a new study published in ACS’ journal Environmental Science & Technology suggests that there’s good reason to make cleaning a priority.

The study focus on dust and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC). EDC’s are substances that can be synthetic as well as natural, which interfere with or mimic our bodies hormones. EDC’s are used among others as flame retardants in furniture, and other sources of EDC include electrical equipment, and even some food and beverage products.

Animal studies show that early exposure to some EDC’s can cause weight gain later in life.

Bottle Dusty Aged Dust Glass Grey Old Vintage

The new study lead by Heather Stapleton looked at wether EDC’s that’s build up in dust would promote weight gain.

The researchers studied dust samples from 11 north carolinan homes against mouse cells in a laboratory. 7 of the 11 samples triggered the celles to develop into mature fat cells and 9 samples spurred the fat cells to divide and create a larger pool of fat cells.

The study also showed amounts as little as 3 micrograms caused measurable effects.

You an find the full study here.

Exit from darkness !

Todays blog post is a bit different then what you are used to get from my hand. usually place high emphasis on science and every article and every fragment of advice is based on what the science says or by questioning the validity of science, when it doesn’t add up.

But today, as we – for now – puts closure to the theme on mental illness, I am going to do things quite differently. I am going to tell you my own personal story – with depression, completely striped down and naked.

It’s my hope that I might be able to inspire someone out there to fight and overcome it, and if just one person finds inspiration and a better life then it’s been worth it.

My story starts back in the year 2000. At the time I was franchising a 7-Eleven store, and I was at a place where although stressed and from time to time under huge pressure I felt that I could do anything in the world that I put my mind into. In a lot of ways, that was also what I did.

However that year also set off my first depression, and started life events that would mark me for the rest of my life.

What happened was that I was faced with 3 armed robberies that year – and as luck would have it, I was working all 3 times.

First one didn’t bother me much really. It happened and I moved on. Six months later, I found myself looking into a gun barrel once more – and this time I felt the adrenaline rush through my veins differently then the first time, but again I brushed it off as a random event. Yet it shouldn’t be more random then the event reoccurring two weeks later but very differently.

It was early morning, still dark, and I was actually having my back to the door while sorting that days delivery of news papers. I did not hear the door open, I didn’t hear his steps either, not a sound until I heard the sound of the gun hammer being pulled back. I have no idea how I was able to recognize the sound, but I instantly knew what was going on, and as I turned around I remember thinking “Shit, not again !”.

But what I found when I turned was not even slightly close to what I had expected. At this point I was looking at a tall skinny person dressed completely in black, with exception of the white pattern of the skeleton on his face mask. If you remember the Scream movies that was popular at the time – that was exactly the mask he was wearing.

He pointed the gun at me and ordered me to empty the cash register in his carry bag – I remember considering while doing it, wether or not I could in any way press the alarm without making a weird movement, and gave up on that idea while watching the gun point to my chest. Then at that point the most dreadful thing happened – as I was in the process, he said something to me, I’ve forgotten today what it was, but it made the blood in my veins freeze to ice, as I could recognize the voice. I could very distinctively recognize the voice, but something blocked me from placing a face to the voice.

Now what really shook me around this last time was knowing that it was someone that I knew but not knowing who it was. Actually a few days after I had an idea who it was, but not knowing his name or being sure that it was him, it became a suspicion that I never said out loud. However seen in the backlight before the robbery he was at the store several times a week, after that incident I never saw him again – so maybe I was right after all.

The experience was traumatic, and during the following months I asked 7-Eleven to arrange conversations with a counsellor. That however was denied, on the grounds that their counsellor service was only for employees not for franchisors. So rather then dealing with it I ended up on anxiety medication, frightened to be alone, and frightened to walk into my own store.

It took me a year to get back on my feet and out of the medication. One of the tools to do this was letting go of the store and moving into a new environment.

However medication or not, the trauma remained there and few years later, everything began to pop up again. This time I went to my doctor in the hope of being send to a counsellor, but given a 6 month waiting list for a counsellor he decided that it would be better to place me on medication. I was given Cipralex, at the time a pretty new drug used to treat depression.

So over the next 6 months sudden anxiety attacks, dark and depressed thoughts was replaced with bad memory, low physical sensitivity, fatigue, and constant cognitive decline ( A few times I actually experienced to call the wrong person up and not realizing it until I was way into the conversation) , and a constant feeling of being “high” on something – as if I was there, but I was not.

By allowing myself to rest, find my place in life and redefine my purpose and the support and love of a few select friends I managed to get off the medication and return to life.

But it was not without a price. previously I had been known for having and elephants memory of even small details, but since taking the Cipralex I lost that extraordinary memory function and it has since taken years to retrain my brain up to normal memory function. On the physical side of things the sensitivity in my nerves and finer movement has suffered as well.

The next years that follow I was in and out of depression, but whenever I was in it was always for limited times of 1-2 months and never with the agony of that first great depression, until the summer of 2016.

That summer passed a lot of events on me. Primarily cut backs at my workplace of the time combined with a new leadership structure and a team spirit that was changed from “We stand together” to “Survival of the fittest” drew major strains on my mind control.

When at the same time I had to let go of what I had at the time defined as my life purpose and highest passion – I fell completely to the floor, I was overwhelmed with fatigue, very dark and hopeless thoughts, as if life had no meaning and no joy.

From there on it was like a freefall, I stoped my workouts (I used to be at the gym 4-5 times a week), I isolated myself as I had no energy for being social and if I had to be around people it would take me hours, and sometimes days, to work up the energy for that.

As an attempt at overcoming the problem, I decided to change job, and getting into a new positive work environment did push me in the right direction. However it should not last very long, as at the same time I got in contact with a person who thrived on bullying, harassing and belittling me – unfortunately that contact was in a context where I couldn’t just walk away. I was back at working, sleeping and eating because that was all I had energy for.

But that was also the time when sleeping failed me. I stoped being able to fall asleep and for the next 6 months I was sleeping 2-4 hours per day, after spending hours upon hours trying to fall asleep. If I was lucky then once a week my body would give up and sleep for 10-14 hours.

It is obvious that this was not healthy in any way, neither physically or mentally, and as I look back at it now, I often wonder how I survived.

The simple explanation to my survival is because I got sick and tired of feeling miserable. I started to rethink why I am here, what is my my purpose of being alive – and put it down on paper. One of those purpose defining things is actually this blog and the formation of a company devoted to promoting healthy life choices and natural alternatives to common health care.

At the same time as I took this step, I started surrounding myself with people with a positive insight to life, and who could build me up through personal development.

This was a life changer. I started to feel excitement sprout again. But I was still not getting regular sleep, fatigue was still after me like a demon in the night and though I was capable of smiling it never really hit the eyes.

So how could I get the last bit of way ? I asked myself that question many times. Given what the antidepressants I was given years earlier ruined for me – that was one path that I knew I would never take again. But what then ?

That was when I was introduced to a new supplement named VIVA. In my previous article I went through the science of Saffron as an antidpressant and anti anxiety remedy.

Saffron was exactly what this supplement was based on – So with the knowledge of Saffron as a well studied remedy for better sleep, better mood and less anxiety I was excited to try it out.

But what happened next impressed me more then any product had ever impressed me. The positive side of supplements is that they usually work better then pharmaceutical drugs on the long term – because they take care of the underlying root causes of disease, rather then just being a symptom treatment. They are usually also safer because they are simply food, but the downside is that most supplements takes time to work, and I have never seen a supplement that work faster then a pharmaceutical drug.

So when I decided to test VIVA I took 2 tablets shortly before bedtime, and within half an hour I was sound asleep. I followed the procedure the following two nights with the same result. But whats further more is that I felt energetic at the point of waking up. On the 3rd and 4th day I also experienced radically enhanced mood levels. I was so impressed because not even pharmaceutical antidepressants work this fast.

Today I’ve found a formula that works perfect for me – one tablet of VIVA in the morning to enhance my mood and two tablets 15 min. prior to bedtime for improved sleep.

In my mind there’s no doubt that the main reason why we have ever increasing problems with mental illness is that our food today is deprived of nutrients like Omega 3 and antioxidants so that chronic inflammation in the brain causes levels of serotonin to fall, and by depriving us of the nutrients that’s supposed to give us fuel to cope with challenging events in life – simultaneously as we now soround ourselfs with more and more challenging lifestyles.

If you want additional information on VIVA with Saffron then you can find it on this link or by clicking the image on the right. Also I would be happy to answer any questions you might have or go into more details with the process I went through – In that case you are welcome to send me a private message through my Facebook Page. All private messages remain that – private !

Could Saffron be the missing piece in side effect free mental health treatment ?

If you’ve ever worked in psychiatric care, or if you have a mental issue or know someone suffering from a mental issue then you know that the drugs that we use for mental treatment today, is everything but safe and free of side effects.

Because of this it’s been a long time hope to find a safe way to keep those mental issues under control. From the study mentioned in the previous article Inflammation Linked To Mental Illness we now know, that there’s a definite link between inflammation and mental health.

Muscular Man Male Back Blue Depressed Depression

We’ve seen links between anti inflammatory diet components, such as fish oil and/or high dosages of antioxidants, which has been reported to be mood enhancers. Now thanks to the study by Boston Children’s Hospital we know why it works – Because mental illness is caused by inflammation in the brain.

With an ORAC value of 20,580 ( ORAC is an international scale used to measure the antioxidant capacity of food) compared to apples with 17,933 , Reishi Mushroom with 9,244 , Cranberries with 9,090 or red wine with 4,523 – Saffron becomes highly interesting, not only as an anti inflammatory agent but also in the perspective of mental illness.

if we look towards history then Saffron has been used in traditional medicine as a calmative and antidepressant agent. The herb is also known to be relaxing the muscles in the digestive tract which helps the digestive process and enhance appetite.

But one thing is what is believed to be true by traditional medicine, or people using specific diets or herbs and report that they feel better – another thing is science , so where is the science ? Is all this make-believe or does it have any scientific validity ?

Iranian Hassein Hasseinzadeh, has done a vast number of studies on Saffron and mice that has shown increased mobility, enhanced erectile function and antidepressant like effects of Saffron. So these studies actually supports that Saffron can have an effect on mood.

But then how do humans react to Saffron ? Another Iranian study lead by S. Akhondzadeh showed a significantly higher effect on mild to moderate depression from Saffron compared to Placebo in a double blinded trial. Another study by the same research group ( also double blinded) proved similar effects of Saffron compared to Prozac.

A review study from 2015 concluded good effects of Saffron in treating depression as well as Alzheimers, where Saffron showed same effect as Donepezil but without the vomiting side effects.

Another review study from 2013 concluded the same “Saffron supplementation can improve symptoms of depression in adults with MDD” (MDD = Major depressive disorder”).

So what does this mean ? Well it does not mean that if you are diagnosed with a mental disorder you should throw away your medicine and start cooking with Saffron. It also does not mean that you should throw away your medicine and use a Saffron supplement instead – at least not without consulting your doctor.

However it does mean that it would make sense to supplement your conventional medication with a Saffron supplement. It also means that if you are one of the vast majority of people who suffers from periodic depression then it would make sense to use a Saffron supplement as a prevention measure. The same goes for those who lives stressful lifes – as stress often leads to depression.

It also means that these studies brings hope that in time we can come up with a safe and natural way of controlling mood and mental challenges.

So which supplement should you use ? There’s a number of choices, and I myself has been one of those suffering from a damaging depression, but has overcome it , with the help of among others a Saffron supplement. In the next two articles I will go in-depth with my personal story and choices along the way.

Further Reading and source material :

Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial.

The effects of CrTocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

Making your primary circle work for your mental health !

In our latest article we looked at pharmacology’s chance to be the solution to mental illness, and we came to the conclusion that psychiatric pharmacology has very little chance to solve the ever increasing problem.

Now why is that ? Well my argument is that mental disorders are not a medical problem but a lifestyle and society related problem. You and I, we create people with mental illness every day because of what we demand of each other. Next we give them a drug in the morning and at nighttime and society has taken care of the problem – and we’ve even saved our community a lot of money because it’s cheaper then therapy. Yet the problem is – psychiatric drugs calms the symptoms for a while, without curing the root problem, until the chemicals we’ve filled those people with has made them so sick that it bursts.

Mental illness has existed as long as history remembers – yet in the ancient times insanity was also used to cover up for ideas from people who was thinking things that was uncomfortable for the elite. Still mental illness was not nearly as common as today.

WHO estimates 300 million people suffering from depression world wide. Try to say this out loud – 300 million suffering from depression ! This does not include bipolar, schizophrenia, OCD, ADD, ADHD, etc…… dear friends, that’s a lot of people.

So when did we start to see this boom in mental illness ? Well it wouldn’t be to much of an assumption to say that the more industrialized our society has become the higher the count of people with mental disorders.

So what does that all tell us ? What has changed gradually as society has industrialized ?

1). Food quality : This is a sure winner. If something has changed for the worse along with industrialization this is it ! The more industrialized society has become the more our food has changed from low calories with lots of nutrients to higher in calories with less if any nutrients. More and more we use synthetic nutrients over the real thing, which often cause more turmoil then good.

2). Exercise : The more industrialized that our society has become the less manual labour has been done. Before industrialization the men worked hard in the fields, mines, on the docks, etc and the women worked just as hard by doing their chores in the home. All of it was manual labour. Exercise came as a natural part of life – today machines are doing most of our manual work and exercise is something we need to schedule.

3). Social life: The way we socialize with other people has also changed with industrialization. Industrialization has created a society where both husband and wife has to work and the hours we need to put into working is increasing. The result being that they loose social time together, with their children – who’s been parked at day care because mummy and daddy has to work. Those times has also passed when friends just dropped by to say hi – we need to schedule time to be social today.

Simultaniously we demand more and more of each other. Colleagues, employers and friends all expect of you to be perfect and always say YES ! Result – the intimate social relations we need from our spouses, children and friends suffer on the alter of career and living up to expectations.

In continuation of that, when I see the behavior of teens and young adults today, I see a frightening image of a group of people who long for recognition whether that’s if they look good enough, if what they do is good enough or if they themselfs are cool enough. I don’t know how you look at this image, but to me it’s increasingly frightening, and I can’t make any other conclusion that what they really lack is the attention of their parents, and if they dont get that then any attention good or bad is better then none.

In my opinion….before we start looking at how to treat mental illness we need to dig down below to the root cause, what has triggered all these cases ? Whats wrong and how do we make our primary circle work for us ? When I say primary circle I mean our selfs, the life we live, the people we soround ourselves with and the food we eat. We need to dig all the way down to, how do we get rid of the chronic inflammations that make our brains work against us rather then with us, how do we reclaim our right not to be perfect, how do we reestablish our social and intimate bonds with people and how do we get to the point where we can claim the right to therapy so that we got a chance to reprogram those mind patterns that has been disrupted, rather then taking dangerous life shortening medicine for life ?

Is pharmacology the solution to mood control ?

In 2001 WHO ( The World Health Organisation) stated that around 450 million people suffered from some kind of mental or neurological condition. That translates to one in four people. This year WHO estimated that 300 million people are affected by depression alone.

So why do we get so many people with mental disorders ?

Since a study done at Boston Children’s Hospital confirmed that mental illness is caused by inflammation. Hence we know that nutrition plays an essential role.

Studies has also made it 100% clear that there’s a clear link between stress and mental illness ( and depression in particular) – most likely this is because stress produces free radicals which again leads to inflammation.

Pharmacology has never been more big business then it is today. Could an increased use of medicine in general be causing more and more people to suffer from mental problems ?

Given our tagline “We question health” then at it’s impossible to look at these questions and not ask, is pharmacology the solution to mood control ?

So let’s dig into it. When it comes to psychiatric treatment more and more doctors are asking these questions, some of them can be found in the documentary Making a killing: The untold story of psychotropic drugging, which you can watch below:

But how good are the drugs that we use to treat these conditions ?

Well Pfizer who manufacture Zoloft which is a top selling anti depressive drug, received a huge blow as they were sued for misleading marketing when they failed to publish trials that showed placebo to beat zoloft.

Now the case was dismissed in court, however the fact remains that the trials where placebo beats Zoloft does exist and was excluded in the application for the drugs approval, which again leaves us with the question, how much can we trust the data from the studies where Zoloft showed better effect then placebo ?

When asking the question of wether patients on antidepressants has benefit of the drugs, then we also need to look at what these drugs to to people’s life expectancy.

What is very alarming is that the drugs used in psychiatric health care are very highly inflammatory by adding free radicals to your body. Wait ! , didn’t we start this article by saying that free radicals leads to inflammation, and inflammation leads to mental illness ? Yes ! we did, and that’s definitely cause for concern, but walks hand in hand with the fact that antidepressants have extensive side effects.

So – do we die from antidepressants ? That question is not for me to answer, but a study by Petrascheck published in nature in 2007 concluded that the component Mianserin increased life expectancy by 20-33%. But what is pretty worrying is that the same study showed a decrease in life expectancy for substances: Fluoxitine (11-48% decrease), Sertraline ( 76-80% decrease) and Paroxetine (42-76% decrease). But what’s even worse is that as Kim Zarse and Michael Riston attempted to recreate Petraschack’s results, their findings was that Mianserin not only significantly decreased life expectancy but also elevated body fat.

So if we have drugs with severe side effects, that most likely will kill you before time, and may not really help your mental issues – then we need to ask the question once again, is pharmacology the solution to mood control ?

My personal opinion is no. Pharmacology might be the best bet that we have today, or maybe not the best bet, but the most researched and marketed bet we have today, but pharmacology does not cure the problem, which is malnutrition ( to many calories with to little nutrients), stress caused by the way our society is put together, polution etc. The drugs temporarily puts a lit on the symptoms.

We need another paradigme !

Further Reading:

Antidepressants of the Serotonin-Antagonist Type Increase Body Fat and Decrease Lifespan of Adult Caenorhabditis elegans

An antidepressant that extends lifespan in adult Caenorhabditis elegans

Clinical trials on Zoloft vs. Placebo

Whats new about the Mental Illness and inflammation link ?

Yesterday I presented a study from the Boston Children’s Hospital that proved direct connection between mental illness and inflammation. This is not new, however the study is breaking news. So how does the study change the way we look at mental illness ?

It’s been known for years now that chronic inflammation is the cause of about 90% of the lifestyle diseases that we carry around. Conditions such as acne, colitis, arthritis, any autoimmune disease, type II diabetes, obesity, Alzheimers, Parkinson, ADD/ADHD, Autism etc. has been either proven to be caused by inflammation or worsend by inflammation. Now there’s always been a lot of theory as to wether or not mental illness and inflammation might also go hand in hand – and most doctors who work independently from the pharmaceutical industry has pointed towards inflammation as the root cause of depression, anxiety disorders etc.

In example watch this 8 minute presentation from Dr. Dave Scheiderer, about chronic inflammation and depression and why some people do not have full effect of modern medication.

However the new thing that follows the study from Boston is that now we can actually prove that inflammation causes mental illness. The mentioned study used a mouse model with Lupus, that focused on interferon-alpha a protein cytokine that is released by white blood cells as an alarm response. Previously we’ve thought that Interferon – Alpha did not cross the blood – brain barrier but the new study showed that Interferon – Alpha did exactly that and caused changes in the brain and loss of brain synapses.

This also validates reports saying that a diet of fish oil and high amount of antioxidants has helped people with non complex mental issues.

This is highly interesting in the perspective of developing anti inflammatory mental treatments with no side effects.

The study can be found here